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Collage II Bosnian Knot I Nishan Within Bosnian Knot III

Stećak – Symbol of Bosnia

There is a science to beauty, but only criticism beautiful, nor beautiful science, but there is just beautiful art. For judging the fine arts is required taste, to form the Fine Arts needed a genius, says Kant. Natural beauty is a beautiful stone, artistic beauty is a beautiful artistic performances in one stone. Although stećak tombstone, he is in the form of home. The genius is in the house escaped figurative reliefs show an ugly death, and the allegory and symbolism opted for a beautiful life, and tombstones appears in the viewer joy of life, not the grief of death.

“Dark Land” and “Defiance of Sleep”

The peoples who are deprived of art, history and understanding, says Abdullah Sarcevic in The Sphinx of the West, and adds, remain forever in the silent darkness of the past. “Great came into the world to be listened to, but for centuries they may disappear again until a man can not hear their speech,” Parmenides. So “Life panting under an ever-growing burden and terror of the past.” Maybe it’s just in Bosnia? “How? Is man only God’s mistake? Or God merely a failure of man? Worm which they stomped, begins to buckle. It’s understandable. It thus reduces the likelihood that re ga trodden, “Nice. Centuries epitaph on the tombstones dead pray live “on stećak not fit.”

From Bosnian archetypes Illyria, “land of Bosnia,” heretics – maniheja / bougainvillea and their tombstones in it, exists a duality: love and hate, “love hate” or “hatred of love”. The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia the phrase “wilaya”: teritirijalna large administrative units, divided into sanjaks, expression and birthplace, hometown, is mentioned in folk songs. After that happened the mass transfer of Bosnian heretics to Islam. Then, in our time of hate “vilayet” adds the prefix “Dark” out of love occurs singing “defiance.” And the art of film today is dominated by two formations, “No Man’s Land” and the country of blood and honey “.

Recently, the publisher of controversial monograph tombstones, Ž. Ivankovik, he writes, “that the sword spread Islam and Christianity is love.” When all the faith in the faith, and is not so. To tell the truth, kto knows that in order, but the Last Crusade for Christ’s tomb was even one boy, when these innocent creatures shippers Marselille to Jerusalem so they carried them out of love, turned and marketed in Egypt. I know it’s some quick went into oblivion, and in particular: that centuries ago hatred of heretics of Bosnia, or Rubio, or they constantly hanging over their heads, “the sword of Damocles.” However, today it is a turn on the stage: the centuries-old hatred of the Bogomils reversed in the love of their tombstones. Before the violence and devastation Hungarian crusaders, they argued, there was no disagreement Bosnian heresy to the Catholic Church, and later, of hate and love, it is.

Since the fall of Bosnia under Turkish rule (1463), in such a setting, references to “the first mass conversions to Islam, which Paul called renegades Riccaut (incredibly only) 1660′s. Soloviev alive the belief that the need to connect the Bosnians, who accepted Islam with the practices of the rest of bougainvillea, “says Fine VH Jahn. “It’s unbelievable just”, since other sources of standing: Turks 1435th Hodidjed occupy the fort, where around the 1460th The developing nucleus of Sarajevo, of course with the Muslim locals, for example, for the village Knežina heretics Radenović and Pavlovic in Nahiye Lead, said: “Since the arrival of the Turks 1479th the first Islamization passed only 6 years old, so the 1606th year there are 81 Muslim household, Sultan Selim Mosque han … “. At the same time they were significant individual transitions: brother Catherine Kosače – heretic, Prince Stephen (1454-1517), first on Hum, converted to Islam and became Hercegovic Ahmed Pasha, as well as her two children, first in Bosnia, Catherine – Emina and Sigismund (1450-1490), who becomes Ishak Bey Tomasevic …

I would not be further quoted the great philosopher Nietzsche and what does he think about religion, I would not be cited here speak or real evidence, except for one recent controversy over the director and an actor in Sarajevo, where he first declares: “I hate to Bosnia because Bosnia is a land of hatred “second threat … Yes, these” young “they are” old “and that any chance to live in the Middle Ages, when there was no aesthetics where art is associated with heresy, sculpture evil, and stage actors’ harness devils”, although talented would be close to them, “boards which means life,” like “anything to anyone.” Then what is stale / fresh going into the body “work Satan.” Text controversy “From an unpublished testimonies Esad Bibanović about Mak Dizdar: on the occasion of disqualification of literary legend Skender Kulenovic and Mak Dizdar …”. From slogans “Heritage is the weight on the legs, wings on his shoulders” (Begic), remained an idea that breaks the “wings on his shoulders.” So that everything smells like “The Lord save us!” Similarly he has passed the medieval Averroes ibn Ružd, the largest figure of Arabian philosophy in the West, Spain, “Aristotle announced nature, Aristotle, Averroes’. He performed a tremendous impact on the development of medieval Arabic and European Renaissance philosophy, but the “astray”, briefly forced into exile, and later his followers – the Latin “averroeste” and criticized Christianity, while he lived, and the young philosopher Suhravardi in Persia , “young” because it swallows the darkness of religion, is inherited as a heretic ideas zaratustrizma-Manichaeism, and the Bosnian heretics: they were neither Orthodox nor were Catholics, but dualists. In truth, it was a group of undefined “in the upper course of the Neretva was sixteen Bogomil families, who were Christian, but they refused the Franciscans and the Orthodox priests,” FY Martic. Papal sources speak of heresy in Bosnia, the Manichaean dualism – God and Satan, the Bosnian heresy.

But even before the “perpetual darkness” in Bosnia, the ancient century and beyond, and in it was “dark centuries”. Sources Nemanja of Serbia, XII century, against the “cunning heresy” says: “One of pop, other penalties, third persecute their language teacher … the cut-throat, and the devil burn books.” Another source said that in the thirteenth century, the center of French city of Toulouse was the Cathars, but its last-followers Gnostic Manichean sect “Montseguaru 1243rd year, burned alive. ” Then they got through the Bosnian heretics, when they twice baptized king Stjepan Tomas 1449th year, snatching their country, translating “hate to love” and “today” it seems, their bones and tombstones arrogate, just drove from Bosnia to hum. Well they passed Kulenović and Dizdar. They are dead disqualified from the corpus of national literature, but, as a heretic Dante Alighieri 1302nd live exiled from Florence, and Giordano Bruno in 1600. Rome burned alive.

But, back to the said heretical tombstones art – visual. We just learned that the eyes may watch. Also directly acquainted and external structure of the eye, which contains conditions, its possible uses, and therefore we find causation based on mechanical laws. However, I can not, as Kant also use a stone that I broke it or something that would build something with it. The purpose and form of the eye meets the purpose and form of the Sun and Moon – the source and reflex sight or aesthetic phenomenon, which goes into the aesthetic category of nature and man. “The eye of judge that it should be perfect for viewing.” Kant in The Critique of aesthetic power of judgment, presents its principles a priori, from which it derived theoretically, aesthetically – reflective and practical judgments. Other philosophers say that it dates from the aesthetic of magic and religion: harmony, order and balance, it’s nice what you like by itself, folksy, what is this is the appropriateness of the nature of the subject property …

If we adjust the Kantian thought art Bosnian tombstones, then we can say, we should analyze what is in them sensually and what is in their mind, and that does not break new ground by stone symbols of a culture created, other skrnavila, one discovers , the other concealed. Art in its purpose a priori governed by the power of judgment in relation to the feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction … Aesthetic judgments are subjective and morals are a product of freedom under the idea of ​​expediency of good and evil, which regulate relations between people …

Kant, consequently his assertion of subjectivity and pure categories zorova, agnostic denied the possibility of knowledge of the world, or “things in themselves” which is supposedly unable to recognize and accommodate the senses than just the intellect to think, according to the dualistic philosophy, while dialectical materialism teaches that There are just things that the particular historical stage are not known, but that will be the development of science known. However, our medieval historian still cares for those who “believe because they believe.”


Already in Kant said, “as stated in the dualistic philosophy.” Dualism is an ancient religious and philosophical direction, contrary to monism, which arises from the Persian prophet / philosopher Zoroaster and Mania: Ormaza and Ahriman, white and black god, god and satan, according to which the two principles of spirit and matter, physical and psychological, and their intertwining of love and hate, the size and style of art … occurs in Chinese, Persians, ancient Slavs … and many philosophers such as Decartes, Laibnic, Spinoza … Marian Wenzel dualism is attributed to Bosnian Bogomils, myself and manihejima. According to this philosophy, “The soul never dies, because the search and learning are just memories.” Not “dying” one whose genes are in love and passion fruit and childbirth, inherit, and speaks potsvijest. “No man can be to search for what he knows what – because as soon as known, there is no need to search, nor could those looking for what you do not know, because I do not know what is it to trace,” Socrates. Myself were searching for the heritage and artistic style tombstones, and came to the conclusion that the tombstones oriental heritage reliefs of Assyria and domestic Illyria, that the content of the philosophy of life and an art form Bosnian style. When I am in search of their own merged these two Bosnian relief, they are immediately srodili or reborn and suddenly become “twins”!

Illyrian goddess Diana, Opacic Glamoc; Tombstone “Towers” Terrestrial Muses, Sarajevo man with his arms raised, Tombstone, Radimlja

Really, there is no need readers point out the similarity between these two reliefs, as if they were carved one sculptor, but also gave him one “of Bosnia,” even with the time difference of about 1500 years: it is therefore a textbook example of the continuity of the Bosnian genes – spirit that is understandable for everyone, and the LDCs as a professional.
My concept of tombstones “Bosnian style” are “going to hand ‘own intuition, art Assyria and Illyria, the principle of” a priori “Kant,” transcendental phenomenology “Husserl,” Aesthetics “N. Hartmann,” Phrygian caps on tombstones “archaeologist A . libretti, “Bosnian style” on the tombstones … M. Wenzel, and religious historian D. koncepr tombstones Lovrenović. This latter defend against Lubovca once the news article “Amateurism and decadence.” He is a historian, but not the art historian, and tombstones are art, even I am neither one nor the other, the only thing I have in the Central School of Arts in Sarajevo and Belgrade Academy of listening subject “historja art” and this year I wrote a textbook ” Kijovna culture “for high school students, and even if I did nothing, hence the worse for him, if it is such a failed” dotuči to the leg. ” But that’s why I rejected the first saying “Ttreba say only that which can be clearly stated, and that the other needs into silence,” agreed the other saying “Philosophy is permanent, even desperate effort to say what is, in fact, not can say. ” Although the historian believed that “its the latter,” the monograph tombstones, what happened, “Behold, the feet of those who will present already at the threshold,” the words of the Apostle Paul addressed to Ananias. ” For the sake of truth and delusion, even my not last as long as the thought of tombstones finds herself or tombstones “by itself”. In these categories subconscious hiding himself or what we know and what we have forgotten, it is mediated by parents and handed to us, if children from their parents and handed to inherit the largest number of health and illness, biological and psychological characteristics, it is certain that children and young people inherit and other experiential and mental genes that are present in the form of intuition and instinct, and metaphysics phenomena which are inherently experience arises in us, and we say “Chops”. The fact that Homer was blind, if he was blind, and if he sang the Iliad and Odyssey, talking about memories, not about vision, and he is in the eighth century BC remembers the Trojan War from the XII century, it means 4oo years old, and sings a forgotten language. M. Dizdar returns 800/400 years old Bosnia heretics, writing epitaphs on tombstones and writes Stone sleeper. German writer Novalis’ expected of a man as the microcosm to remember the creation of the world, the finest source of beauty. “
Because how do you explain such a similarity relief Illyrian goddess Diana from Glamoc and tombstones Greetings from Radimlje – identical figurative composition with three figures, with a time difference of about 1500 years, but in that way that the carver “Greeting saw” relief “Diana” and recognized himself in it, or ga, through their surrender, and by that I mean the relief of Assyria, he remembered. And then relief from “Radimlje» Radimlja occurs on a dozen tombstones where experiencing a certain style-tion, which means that the art form that adopted such a style. Such as “the first visual style ‘on the rock relief of King Narmer Palette in Egypt, which shows all lines symbolic of Egyptian art, and tombstones are symbolic art of Bosnia. In the visual arts, style means Stylos, stylus, chisel, “the style is the man” … a special way in which forms are selected and combined into a single unit, writes HW Janson.
Creative and Aesthetic

As is known, there is an aesthetic phenomenon in nature, man and art, and her senses are objective and subjective. For example, in nature there is an objective phenomenon: rainbow in the sky, green meadow …, “long” and “color green meadows in the sky belongs to the objective sensations as sensory perception of one object, and amenity and green belongs to the subjective aesthetic sense , not expecting that the subject of it has any benefits, “Kant. As can be neither “long” nor sensuous experience “green fields” can not put in some interest, they only reflect something beautiful in us and cause such amenity. The aesthetic appearance of the man in the dream / past or conscious memories, which are objective aesthetic senses tracked life satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and so are their reflections in dreams. Many people are of a mind to Aristitela Jung emphasized: conscious and hidden thoughts of the present and the past, childhood and man, so archetypical images. collective unconscious, mythological symbols najdubleg layers: the parents and surrender, joy and fear, demons and sages, the man-animals, hidden treasure, springs and ravines … “appeared in a dream.” We should also mention the current human face, grimacing, coincidence and what he conceals in his story, and reveals the present, the aesthetic appearance.
Aesthetic in the art is the aesthetic appearance of the viewer in the subject of art. Sculpture and Relief belong visual – visual or spatial arts, our interest here is the sculptural art of tombstones. They analyze the form and content, materially and spiritually, creatively and aesthetically. Stećak objective is three-dimensional stone block that is pleated or frilly two-dimensional figurative compositions that herbal relief ornaments frame or stand, and epitaphs – bosančica letter. Of course, any analysis of tombstones subjective mental layer is different from the objective of the physical layer. Complete the phrase-and three-dimensional experience of tombstones in nature, when the subject ga, where it was born, tours, from two-dimensional tombstones in the literature.
Other philosophers argue that the aesthetic man who encounters himself, a microcosm of the universe, harmony, order, harmony, rhythm, movement, proportion, and kitsch as a negation of aesthetic, an aesthetic feeling and knows no law, and logic has to deal with the laws of reason and intellect .
Our contributions go into the category of research in space and time, the number of cemeteries and tombstones, forms: supine, and standing tombstones, sculptures and relief, stone, tombstones
The aesthetics of the “cosmologist began the relationship of celestial bodies orbiting around its orbit and pigs ‘, which is bathed in the mud’,” Gilbert. In addition to questions of belonging tombstones: what are they “on us”, because it is simply ridiculous where our historian sees “Heaven, Hell and Purgatory,” to believe only those who believe, but then the art historian’s “Spanish village”. A propos, asks Kant, who is the cause of it is petty bourgeois taste could grow up to luxury, and suspected that it might solve empirical psychology? We are particularly interested in what they are they “by itself”, what is in them creatively and aesthetic in us? In the foreground is the art of creativity in different aesthetics. Creative, objective, material or visual, therefore, belongs to the genius of the artist, in the background is the aesthetic that belongs subjective experience or subjective art appears in the viewer. The aesthetic may be, that one judge on the basis of what is in front, the other on the basis of what he has in his mind. First adheres free beauties, another adds to the beauty, the third inspired a new art form. The first time the aesthetic in the art appears in the act of controversy Greek philosophers and poets Homer and Plato … Since then, the aesthetic variable categories in the Middle Ages “is not” not any, the Renaissance was a mathematical perspective and proportion … today is the aesthetic movement – motion of the soul in the subject. “If I could say it is a beautiful art, and to prove that I have a taste, it is what I referred to her performances in itself a product,” Kant, that is, a kind soul, and no tangible benefit in the present tombstone in itself a product: it the aesthetic appearance of or experience in me. In a broader context, it can be art: to be called “beautiful” art, or “bad” by saying that “what society is such an art,” impression, expression or symbolic art that go and tombstones: meet the subject-object tombstone , as the encounter with oneself; inspiration or inhalation of cultural heritage, such as “Stone sleeper” Dizdar, “tombstones witnessed a tragedy, but their figures show no kneeling with folded hands in prayer before his death, but before the inquisitors defy” Krleza . Epitaphs such as “Here lies the good hero and čo’ek”, “I was what you are, you’ll be what I am” … express the philosophy of life and death, and at the end of moral judgment – that the human spirit must be free, which distinguishes good from evil, and how in Bosnia opposes dualism “Dark Land” and “defiance of sleep.”

And finally, Bosnia is a country rich in religions, she is both in the periphery and in the center, and her purpose and destiny that connects the two cultures of East and West, Orthodoxy and Catholicism. Hence the “eyesore” and subject to all manner of appropriation. Not the case today as a religious concept tombstones seeks that which they have been “per se”, but that which they have been “on ways”, and “to offer some relief tombstone Madonna with baby Jesus”, but it does not show nor proved. And the religious art of the early Christian, Romanesque and Gothic are symbolic but strictly regulated at the level of craft and artwork, because they aestheticians now bypassed. Of course, that Christianity many symbols taken from pagan art in the past, the Virgin of the zodiac represented in ancient drawings as a woman nursing her child; Devaki with small Krsna and Isis with Horus small, they are indistinguishable from Madonna Mary with baby Jesus … For example, “is only in the eighth century, the date of birth was taken 25th December: the birthday of Mithras, Osiris, and other solar gods. ” These sun myths and religious symbols, which are eternally repeated, with different names, can not go unnoticed by those who are engaged in the study of religion, (Eni Besan), tell the truth, all of it, by nature, may be unknown to the believer, and to such symbols may appear on the Bosnian tombstones, then perhaps such a one-dimensional concept medijevalnom milieu would have been blind to the broader context, as is the case with our historian, and would not be located in the cliche of a religion.
In the culture of the ancients or the arts, “the childhood of humanity” of Egypt, India, Mesopotamia, as in the old Bosnia and Hum lasted symbolic art that the expression used by different motives as symbols of “stone, animals and the circle” (Jung), whose origins can be subconscious, dreams and myths. Symbol of an idea is a play on the analogy in relation to the content of the subconscious instinctive “something for something”: crossing two triangles is the six-pointed Jewish star sinbol, cross / Cross Christian / Christian, a sheep man, a shepherd is God. Chess-pad is Indian-thought-Persian war game, “checkmate” the king is dead, and the “swastika” sign in the shape of a Greek cross with broken ends at a right angle, swastika, one of the Hindu / Persian religious symbols, which the Nazi takeover. The art of the recent past almost imposed broader motives for spreading symbols: Buddhist temples of India, the Egyptian pyramids, the Acropolis of Greece, Moscow Kremlin, Stonhedž England, Mayan pyramids and tombstones of Bosnia. Facilities on the tombstones are no gods, saints and angels round, hunting and tournaments; short motifs and symbols on the tombstones are: spirals, rosettes, circle, cross, crescent, star and swastika; finest stećak “tower” with 12 lunar symbols .
Ragib Lubovac
Sarajevo, January 12, 2012
Postscript: the sculptor tombstone “Towers” and so when it was cut and which is not known. Maybe because the Table of Kulin Ban similar lunar 6, and the latest installment of the tombstone “Towers” 12 junarnih symbols, “Some thought it was stećak Ban Kulin (1180-1204?). Arheoleg Truhelka considered ga statue of Ban Stephen Prijezda (XIII century). ” Today is for these reasons that made further investigations and that, at a found skeleton in Zgošća goes on DNA analysis. The idea that the stećak “Towers” set as a public monument in Sarajevo, as well as figurative monument Bosnian king Tvrtko I Kotromanić in Tuzla, going into the aesthetic and ethical category.

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